Often developing gradually and without noticeable symptoms, hypertension is sometimes referred to as "the silent killer." over time, the increased force exerted on arterial walls can lead to serious health complications, such as heart disease, stroke, kidney damage, and vision problems. Risk factors include age, family history, obesity, sedentary lifestyle, tobacco use, excessive alcohol consumption, and high-sodium diets.
To manage hypertension, various medications are prescribed to lower blood pressure and reduce the risk of associated health issues. These drugs function through different mechanisms, and their selection depends on factors such as the severity of hypertension, the patient's overall health, and potential side effects.
Common classes of hypertension medicines include:
• Diuretics (e.g., hydrochlorothiazide, furosemide) - These drugs aid the kidneys in eliminating excess sodium and water from the body, thereby reducing blood volume and pressure.
• Beta-blockers (e.g., metoprolol, atenolol) - By blocking the effects of adrenaline, these medications decrease heart rate and blood pressure.
• ACE inhibitors (e.g., lisinopril, ramipril) inhibit angiotensin II production, which constricts blood vessels, lowering blood pressure.
• Angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) (e.g., losartan, valsartan) - These medications block angiotensin II's action on blood vessels, promoting relaxation and reducing blood pressure.
• Calcium channel blockers (e.g., amlodipine, diltiazem) - By preventing calcium from entering the muscle cells of the heart and blood vessels, these drugs promote relaxation and reduced blood pressure.
Adhering to the prescribed treatment plan and regularly monitoring blood pressure levels is crucial for effectively managing hypertension. Lifestyle modifications such as a healthy diet, regular exercise, and stress reduction can further contribute to blood pressure control and cardiovascular health.